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September 2016
"A Coming Crisis in Education? Teacher Supply, Demand, and Shortages in the U. S."
By Leib Sutcher, Linda Darling-Hammond, and Desiree Carver-Thomas. Learning Policy Institute, Stanford University
The emerging teacher shortage is driven by four factors:  1) A decline in teacher preparation enrollment; 2)  District efforts to return to pre-recession pupil-teacher ratios; 3)  Increasing student enrollment: and 4) High teacher attrition.  Click the link above to go to this article.  Click the link below for additional articles on this topic.


August 2014 – August 2015
"Classroom Management"
By Harry and Rosemary Wong
Six articles on classroom management including advice to new and all teachers on how to organize a classroom so that it is consistent every day. The articles apply to all classrooms including classes with special needs students.

Article 1:

Article 2:

Article 3:

Article 4:

Article 5:

Article 6: 

Fall, 2013
"The Changing Face of the Teaching Force: Greening and Six Other Trends "
The Penn GSE Alumni Magazine, Richard Ingersoll, Lisa Merrill, and Daniel Stuckey
Seven large-scale trends are transforming the teacher force, including a teacher force that is simultaneously graying and greening, with high turnover, and yet they are the best and brightest teachers.  Read the authors’ full report, including their methodology and conclusions, in “Seven Trends:  The Transformation of the Teaching Force”  

November 26, 2013
"Michigan classrooms loaded with rookie teachers who soon wash out"
By Ron French, Bridge Magazine
Nationally, 10 percent of teachers leave the profession in the first year. Between 30 and 40 percent leave within four years. Twenty years ago, the average experience for a U.S. teacher was 15 years. Teachers drop out at a higher rate than their students.

August 30, 2012
"More U.S. Teachers New On the Job"
By Greg Toppo, USA Today
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania analyzed the most recent federal surveys and found that, in a bid to replace both retiring teachers and those who quit, schools are hiring large numbers of new teachers.

May, 2012
"Retaining Teachers: How Preparation Matters"
Educational Leadership, Richard Ingersoll, Lisa Merrill, and Henry May
Teachers who have received adequate preparation in pedagogical methods and skills—that is, how to teach—are far more likely to stay in teaching after their first year.   Read the authors’ full report, including a focused study of math and science teachers, and their methodology and conclusions, in “What are the Effects of Teacher Education and Preparation on Beginning Teacher Attrition?

Spring, 2011
"Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers and Principals"
Texas Association of School Administrators
As schools struggle to raise student achievement while walking a budget tight rope, Drs. Harry and Rosemary Wong, remind us that the effectiveness of the teacher is the single most important variable in determining student achievement.      

Dec 1, 2009
"Supporting Teacher Effectiveness: The View From Generation Y"
Learning Point Associates and Public Agenda
There is strong evidence of a confluence and constancy of teacher views that spans the generations.  The six key findings described in this report all point to the fact supporting teacher effectiveness will likely have a profound impact on teacher retention.

Oct 21, 2009
"A Dropout's Guide to Education Reform"
By J. William Towne (2009)
Its a telling commentary about education reform that just about everyone has been given a forum to talk about th ways to address the country's appalling dropout rate except the sropouts themselves.
Used with permission, Education Week, October 21, 2009

Nov 3, 2008
"Does Mentoring Reduce Turnover and Improve Skills of New Employees?”
By Jonah Rockoff (2008), Columbia University
Despite the popularity of mentoring, little is known about its impact on employee turnover and skill acquisition.  Nearly all published and unpublished evaluations of mentoring programs have used research methodologies that fall short of providing credible estimates of the causal impacts of mentoring.  Over one million new teachers received mentoring between 1993 through 2003, but we know little about the magnitude of the benefits they have received or how the impact of mentoring varied across different types of programs.

Oct 17, 2007
"On Their Own and Presumed Expert: New Teachers’ Experience with Their Colleagues
By Susan M. Kardos & Susan Moore Johnson (2007)
The data revealed that many novice teachers report that their work is solitary, that they are expected to be prematurely expert and independent, and that their fellow teachers do not share a sense of collective responsibility for their school.  In integrated professional cultures, new teachers interact with experienced colleagues in an ongoing way.  Taken together, these findings reveal that many new teachers work without the support of integrated professional cultures.

Aug 2, 2007
"Pilot Study:  The Cost of Teacher Turnover in Five School Districts" (2007)
National Commission on Teaching and America's Future
In 2007 NCTAF completed an 18-month study of the costs of teacher turnover in five school districts – Chicago Public Schools (Chicago, Illinois), Milwaukee Public Schools (Milwaukee, Wisconsin), Granville County Schools (Granville, North Carolina), Jemez Valley Public Schools (New Mexico), and Santa Rosa Public Schools (New Mexico).

Aug 2, 2007
“Policy Brief:  The High Cost of Teacher Turnover” (2007)
National Commission on Teaching and America's Future
The National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (NCTAF) estimates that the national cost of public school teacher turnover could be over $7.3 billion a year.  In addition to the nation losing billions of dollars, the policy brief shows that this constant churn drains resources, diminishes teaching quality, and undermines our ability to close the student achievement gap.  The policy brief provides NCTAF's recommendations for controlling costs and improving teaching quality.

Aug 2, 2007
“Induction Into Learning Communities” (2005)
National Commission on Teaching and America's Future
This is NCTAF's policy paper on induction for new teachers.  The paper presents NCTAF's vision for new teacher induction into strong schools that support a career of continuous professional growth.  The paper examines data on induction's impact on teacher retention and emerging information on induction's effects on improving student learning, and goes in-depth on models of strong mentoring programs in the U.S. and comprehensive induction systems in other countries.

Jul 20, 2007
"A Possible Dream:  Retaining California Teachers So All Students Learn"
By Futernick, K., (2007) Center for Teacher Quality, California State University, Sacramento.
One of the critical lessons learned from this study is that strong professional relationships among teachers is a key contributor to teacher retention.  In a team-oriented school environment, teachers are more effective and they find the work more satisfying.  What did surprise us was that collegial supports—the quality of relationships among staff—mattered even more. And the one factor that mattered the most to stayers was the opportunity they had to participate in decision- making at the school.

May 18, 2007
"Getting to Know:  Dr. Harry K. Wong"
An interview by Christina Asquith, Diverse
A Miami teacher once told me that when he started teaching he was given a “classroom management plan” that was really a behavior plan.  So he spent three years fighting student behavior, until he heard me talk and learned that it is all about how you run and structure a classroom.

Apr 19, 2007
"Hey, Ms. A!"
By Jean Murphy, KDP Record, Winter 2007, Kappa Delta Pi, International Honor Society in Education
This is not the same group of students Ms. A met eight weeks earlier
at the start of her student teaching assignment.  They were disrespectful, uncooperative, and often suspended from school for unruly behaviors. This success story is about how Ms. A’s commitment to working with an undisciplined class of third graders
enabled her to establish effective management strategies amidst challenging circumstances.

Apr 12, 2007
“The Single Greatest Effect on Student Achievement Is the Effectiveness of the Teacher”
Paper presented at the North Carolina Principal’s Executive Program (March 2007)
Harry K. Wong
Here they come, the next generation of teachers. The teachers we hire today will become the teachers for the next generation. Their success will determine the success of an entire generation of students.

Apr 12, 2007
"Effective Teachers Work in Teams"
The future of the arts depends on how we induct, not mentor, our next generation of new teachers into the profession.  This is the Generation Y, born 1977 to 1986, with many already having started their careers as teachers.  They are socially adept at working in groups or teams and are avid users of online social networking...What we need to teach the Y-generation of teachers is that the #1 problem in the classroom is not discipline; it is the lack of procedures and routines–the lack of a plan that organizes a classroom for academic success.

Apr 11, 2007
"Teachers:  The Next Generation"
Meet Generation Y, the millennials, a potential U.S. workforce of as many as 40 million people born from 1977 to 1986 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001).  Some of these individuals have elected to become teachers, and although many have passed the five-year mark in their careers, a new wave is just now entering the classroom.
- From ASCD Express 2(13), April 5, 2007.  Used with Permission. The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development is a worldwide community of educators advocating sound policies and sharing best practices to achieve the success of each learner.  To learn more, visit ASCD at

Feb 28, 2007
"Why We Still Need Public Schools"
From the early days of the nation, public education has played a vital role in American democratic society.  In addition to preparing young people for productive work and fulfilling lives, public education has also been expected to accomplish certain collective missions aimed at promoting the common good.

Dec 7, 2006
"Addressing Sources of Collateral Damage in Four Mentoring Programs"
This article examines the types of reoccurring problems that can inhibit K-12 mentoring team relationships and intervention strategies to remedy those problems. Results indicate the need for continuous assessment of mentoring programs and mentoring team relationships, financial commitment from the school district, a rigorous mentor selection process, and providing in-service and workshop opportunities for problem solving.
© Teachers College Record Volume 108, Number 7, July 2006, pp. 1321-1338. Permission granted by author.

Sep 22, 2006
"The New Teacher’s Guide to a Successful Year"
New Teacher Advocate, Fall 2006, Kappa Delta Pi, International Honor Society in Education.
The hardest part about being a teacher is not teaching. It is managing everything and everyone around you.  Be organized and don’t let the negativity of others consume you.

Sep 22, 2006
"Career Changers in the Classroom"
New Teacher Advocate, Fall 2006, Kappa Delta Pi, International Honor Society in Education.
One of the fastest growing demographics among new teachers is career changers. If you are a career changer or have new colleagues who are career changers, the following information and tips may help you or your neighbor down the hall make a smooth transition to this newly chosen profession.

Sep 19, 2006
“Review of Research on the Impact of Beginning Teacher Induction on Teacher Quality and Retention”
SRI International (2004)
Regardless of their scope or structure, induction programs share a simple logic: because new teachers tend to be less effective and are more likely to leave the profession than their more experienced peers, targeted support should be provided to orient them to the profession and to assist them to learn their craft.  The goals are to make new teachers more effective earlier in their careers and to keep them in the profession.

July 20, 2006
"Learn From the Masters"
Edutopia Magazine (July 2006)
There's little consensus about the best way to prepare teachers for today's schools.  Education reformers and academics continue to punch and counterpunch as they circle the ring, trying to gain the advantage in what has become one of education's most hotly contested policy fights.

Mar 20, 2006
"20 Superstars of Education"
There is absolutely no reason why 50 percent of all new teachers should be out of the profession within five years.  School districts have the responsibility to produce effective teachers by implementing highly organized and comprehensive induction programs that flow into life-long professional development programs.  When we teach our teachers well, then they will teach their students well.

Feb 27, 2006
"In Search of Legendary Teachers"
The School Administrator, January 2006, American Association of School Administrators.
As a superintendent, I have set recruitment, selection and retention of “legendary teachers” as my highest priority and have put in place a road map to achieve this goal.  To create a vision for legendary teachers, we synthesized the research to construct a profile of the teachers we want completing applications and knocking down our human resources office door…The research linking high student achievement with teachers who consistently demonstrate these attributes is so compelling that we had this profile framed and displayed in every district and school office.

Dec 14, 2005
"The Struggles and Triumphs of a Novice Teacher"
By Jean Murphy, KDP Record, Summer 2005, Kappa Delta Pi, International Honor Society in Education
"I came to know Ms. Young as a preservice teacher at Chicago State University. She was a bright, intelligent student who demonstrated a high level of skill and enthusiasm for the profession of teaching [primary level] – so high that she was asked to address the graduating body of student teachers with the notion that her ideals would energize her peers."

Nov 10, 2005
“Do Teacher Induction and Mentoring Matter?
Richard M Ingersoll and Thomas M. Smith (March 2004)
This study focuses on different types and components of induction.  The results indicate that beginning teachers who were provided with multiple supports were less likely to move to another school and less likely to leave the teaching occupation.  Some observers have argued that the mere presence of a mentor is not enough. 

Oct 25, 2005
“What They Know That We Don’t Know: Peeping into the Corporate World”
Teacher Leaders Network, Laura Reasoner Jones, Entry #35 (2004-05)
Recently I have had little glimpses of corporate culture through family members and I like what I saw.  Now, this does not mean that I feel schools should be run like businesses.  But two specific pieces of the corporate way of doing things have shown me that schools have a long way to go in encouraging good professional development, i.e., developing the professionals.

Oct 10, 2005
"Surviving New Teacher Orientation"
New Teacher Advocate, 13(1), Fall 2005
Congratulations, you're past the biggest hurdle—being hired. Your next challenge is new teacher orientation and all of its information to digest. I know because, in the last five years, I've been a new teacher in a new building four different times. As a veteran of various new teacher orientations, I'd like to pass along a few tips on getting the most out of these introductions to the profession.

Sep. 14, 2005
"Induction Into Learning Communities"
NCTAF (August 2005)
If America is to meet the needs of 21st century learners, we must move away from the norms that governed factory-era schools. The most persistent norm that stands in the way of 21st century learning is isolated teaching in stand-alone classrooms. Transforming schools into 21st century learning communities means recognizing that teachers must become members of a growing network of shared expertise.

Jun 16, 2005
“The Impact of Mentoring on Teacher Retention: What the Research Says
Richard M. Ingersoll and Jeffrey M. Kralik (Spring 2004)
In recent years there has been a growth in support, guidance and orientation programs – collectively known as induction – for beginning elementary and secondary teachers during the transition into their first teaching jobs. While the particulars of such programs vary widely, they are generally intended to increase the confidence and effectiveness of new teachers, and thus to stem the high levels of attrition among beginning teachers, which estimates place as high as 40-50% within the first five years. 

May 12, 2005
“What Are the Effects of Induction and Mentoring on Beginning Teacher Turnover?
Thomas M. Smith and Richard M. Ingersoll (Fall 2004)
In recent years there has been an increase in the number of programs offering support, guidance, and orientation for beginning teachers during the transition into their first teaching job. This study examines whether such programs – collectively known as induction – have a positive effect on the retention of beginning teachers.  

Apr. 8, 2005
“New Teacher Induction: The Foundation for Comprehensive, Coherent, and Sustained Professional Development”
New teacher induction and mentoring: The state of the art and beyond. Corwin (2005)
Induction is a comprehensive process of sustained training and support for new teachers. The process of induction has been growing successfully for the past twenty years, and this chapter provides an opportunity to talk about where we are and where are we going with the training and retaining of new teachers. Let's begin with some startling facts on why new teachers fail.

Mar. 10, 2005
"How Do the New Teachers Measure Up?"
The Christian Science Monitor (March 2005)
No longer your stereotypical schoolmarm, a schoolteacher today has a profile markedly different from a generation ago. She - teachers are still overwhelmingly female - is less likely to make teaching a lifelong career. Having possibly worked in another field first, she's a bit older than her counterpart 40 years ago. Chances are, she's also more educated.

Feb. 25, 2005
"Schools Out"
Edutopia Magazine (February 2005)
Nearly half of all new teachers leave the job within five years.  What's killing their spirit?  How can we get them to stay?...What I didn't know then was that I wouldn't make it.  Less than a year after facing my first classroom of 32 fidgeting tenth graders, I walked away and never came back -- to that classroom or to teaching.  I became a statistic.

Jan 21, 2005
"What the World Can Teach Us About New Teacher Induction"
Phi Delta Kappan (January 2005)
In the U.S., if new teachers receive any induction at all, it is typically delivered by a single mentor and is not well structured.  The authors report on the much more systematic approaches to induction that five other countries have adopted.

Sep 2, 2004
"Four Ways to Support New Teachers"
NAESP Principal Magazine (September/October 2004)
“The additional demands associated with recruiting, hiring, and mentoring new teachers are daunting for most principals. . . . Principals can positively affect school climate and teacher morale—and ultimately increase teacher retention—by incorporating an invitational approach.”

July 28, 2004
"Their Key to Survival: Each Other"
ASCD Classroom Leadership (June 2004)
“When teachers collaborate, they learn. Research supports this assertion, as does the experiences of a group of young teachers in the Liverpool (N.Y.) Central School District. In the fall of 2000, four first-year teachers created a collaborative teacher network that sustained them through those critical first years in the classroom.”

July 16, 2004
"Tapping the Potential: Retaining and Developing High-Quality New Teachers"
Alliance for Excellent Education (June 2004)
“There is growing consensus that the single most important factor in determining student performance is the quality of the teacher. Therefore, if the national goal of providing an equitable education to children across this nation is to be met, it is critical that efforts be concentrated on developing and retaining high-quality teachers in every community and at every grade level.”

July 12, 2004
"Building a Professional Teaching Corps in Boston"
Boston Plan for Excellence in the Public Schools (2004)
“In the fall of 2002, the Boston Public Schools (BPS) and the Boston Plan for Excellence (BPE) received a four-year grant from an anonymous donor to improve the support, induction, and retention of new teachers in the BPS. . . . This project has provided unprecedented information about new BPS teachers that sheds light on what’s working and what’s not working to retain new teachers.”

May 4, 2004
"The Induction Bridge: Linking Theory to Practice", and
"A Product of New Teacher Induction"

 NYSAFLT Journal, (Winter 2004)
New teacher induction programs have become a significant issue in education reform. The transition from preparing to teach to actual teaching is an important process and a key component to teacher retention.

Apr 22, 2004
"It's All About Procedures"
New Teacher Advocate, 11(4), Summer 2004
Classroom management consists of the practices and procedures that a teacher uses to maintain an optimum environment in which instruction and learning can occur. Before her first day of school, Melissa, a new teacher in Oklahoma, had a script with the first day of school scripted.

Mar 31, 2004
"Producing Educational Leaders through Induction Programs"
Kappa Delta Pi Record, Spring 2004
In districts with programs for new teacher induction and sustained professional development, teachers are more likely to grow into educational leaders.

Mar 30, 2004
"Induction Programs That Keep New Teachers Teaching and Improving"
NASSP Bulletin, 88(638), March 2004
This article features schools and school districts with successful induction programs, all easily replicable. Increasingly, research confirms that teacher and teaching quality are the most powerful predictors of student success. In short, principals ensure higher student achievement by assuring better teaching. (For more information concerning NASSP services and/or programs, please call (703) 860-0200, or visit

Mar 18, 2004
"Induction Programs That Keep Working"
Keeping Good Teachers, Chapter 5 (2003)
“In elementary school, no one ever picked me. That rejection and its resulting hurt stayed with me through life. So when I became a teacher, I vowed never to allow my students to be rejected. But how could I do that when rejection was the initial experience I encountered on my very first day as a new teacher? . . .

Feb 4, 2004
"To Jon, On His First Year of Teaching"
Education Week (February 4, 2004)
“Dear Jon, I just heard the good news that you were hired as a 9th grade math teacher. Congratulations. As your uncle, . . . I’ve put a little gift in this envelope that you may want to use to buy start-up supplies for your classroom. I also wanted to give you something less tangible but more valuable. I hesitate to call it advice, so I’ll simply label it ‘experiences from the trenches.’”

Nov 3, 2003
“Save Millions – Train and Support New Teachers”
School Business Affairs (November 2003)
“Every year, teacher turnover costs Texas schools between $329 million and $1.59 billion. New York City pays $186 million annually to keep pace with teacher turnover. In 2000, the city school board spent more than $8 million for a glossy Madison Avenue recruiting campaign that drew 8,334 new teachers—1, 875 of whom quit after the first year.”

May 28, 2003
"Collaborating with Colleagues to Improve Student Learning" (August 2003)
“Collaborating with colleagues to improve student learning focuses on three major questions: 1. How do we improve student learning? 2. How do we improve teacher learning? 3. How and why is collaborating with colleagues the best way for teachers to learn?”

Dec 18, 2002
"Supporting New Teachers"
American School Board Journal (December 2002)
“Each year thousands of qualified teachers are recruited happily into the profession, only to quit in frustration a year or two later. . . . Despite the tremendous monetary and human costs, school districts continue to discard teachers at alarming rates, only to rehire a new round and lose them, too. Sadly, studies show it is often the most effective and talented teachers who leave.”

Dec 12, 2002
"New-Teacher Excellence: Retaining Our Best"
Alliance for Excellent Education (December 2002)
“America faces tremendous challenges as it seeks to reform the nation’s educational system with the goal of leaving no child behind. Few would argue that, while the challenge must be addressed through a variety of strategies and approaches, one of the most critical elements in achieving success in this endeavor is the need to attract to and retain in our classrooms highly qualified and effective teachers.”

Sept 15, 2002
"Play for Keeps"
Principal Leadership (September 2002)
“A strong induction program helps teachers acclimate and continue to learn and helps principals keep the teachers they hire. All in all, it’s an investment that pays off for everyone—especially students. . . . Leyden High School District in Franklin Park, IL, has an attrition rate of only 4.4%--in the past three years, 86 of the 90 new teachers hired stayed in the district. Lafourche Parish Public Schools, in Thibodaux, LA, lost 1 teacher out of the 46 new teachers hired for the 2001--2002 school year.”

March 15, 2002
"Induction: The Best Form of Professional Development"
Educational Leadership (March 2002)
“New teachers need more than mentors; they need induction programs that acculturate them to the school and equip them for the classroom. . . . The best way to support, develop, and cultivate an attitude of lifelong learning in beginning teachers is through a new teacher induction program focused on teacher training, support, and retention.”

August 15, 2001
"Mentoring Can't Do It All"
Education Week (August 8, 2001)
“The buzzword of the moment seems to be ‘mentoring.’ . . . No one is called simply a teacher. Yet, we dignify the teaching profession when teachers teach other teachers. Novice teachers want teachers—teachers they can watch teach in their rooms, teachers who will give them activities and lesson plans, teachers who will tell them what to do with those kids who challenge even the best in the field.”